Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 2023 , Vol 29 , Issue 5
Thiamethoxam Toxicity: A Review in One-Health Perspective
Warda QAMAR1, Muhammad Usman SHAHID2, Muhammad IRFAN3, Rao Zahid ABBAS1, Ahmad FARAZ4, Riaz HUSSAIN5, Mughees Aizaz ALVI6
1Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN
2General Medicine, Medical Ward, Teaching Hospital, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN
3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN
4Department of Pharmacy, University of Cyberjaya, MALAYSIA
5Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, PAKISTAN
6Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN
DOI : 10.9775/kvfd.2023.30161 Extensive and frequent use of pesticides has induced numerous abnormalities in target and non-target exposed organisms. Among different various pesticides, neonicotinoids are extensively employed in agro-production sectors. Thiamethoxam (TMX) plays an essential role in keeping the crop safe from insect attack, but on the other hand, it has been reported to induce adverse effects in both humans and animals. Previously, it was thought that neonicotinoids have low toxicity potential in mammals, but widespread use has made it evident that these pesticides have serious toxic effects on both invertebrates and vertebrates. Extensive applications of pesticides also pose serious eco-toxicological threats to aquatic and terrestrial organisms in the ecosystem. This review describes the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, and toxic effects of various TMX on living organisms. Moreover, this review summarizes the excretion/deposition of TMX in different tissues along with potentially adverse effects on production potential, immunity, blood parameters, and male/female reproductive systems. Though the pros of TMX surpass the cons, its reported intrinsic toxicity stresses the need to develop new pesticides that have high potency with little harm to humans and animals. Hence, there is a need for hours to address knowledge gaps related to TMX and design effective rational usage of TMX strategies to keep the ecosystem safe from the potentially harmful effects of TMX. Keywords : Thiamethoxam, Pesticides, Neonicotinoids, Toxicity, Residues, Human, Animals