Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 2018 , Vol 24 , Issue 1
Geriatric Cardiology in Dogs - Part 1: Classification and Treatment of Heart Failure in Geriatrics
1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Near East University, Near East Boulevard, 99138, Nicosia - NORTHERN CYPRUS DOI : 10.9775/kvfd.2017.18580 The purpose of this article is to give current current information on the effect of aging on heart, clasification of heart failure (HF) in geriatric dogs and therapeutic advances and challenges. The aging process results in a host of physiological and biological changes that lead to progressive HF. Nearly any cardiovascular disease (CVD) can lead to HF. HF in geriatric dogs is broadly classified into: Diastolic heart failure is defined as HF with preserved ejection fraction (HF/PEF), systolic heart failure is also known as HF with low ejection fraction (HF/low- EF). Importantly, HF/PEF accounts for approximately 50% of all HF patients and its prevalence is higher in the elderly. In humans, mortality and morbidity benefits for HF/low-EF have been reported with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β-blockers and aldosterone antagonists, and the hydralazine–nitrate combination in patients intolerant to ACE inhibitors or nitrates. Therapies for symptom control and morbidity benefit include diuretics and digoxin. The most common and suggested therapy for dogs with HF by ACVIM panelists is furosemide, ACE-I and pimobendan. Pharmacological therapy is limited for HF/PEF as the results of small trials have been inconclusive. To date, clinical trials in HF/PEF patients have not shown mortality benefit so that management is focused on symptom relief and treatment of the underlying cause. Keywords : Geriatric Cardiology, Classification, Treatment, Heart Failure, Dog